Thermodynamics is a scientific discipline concerned with heat and its relation with other energy forms. It defines macroscopic variables, such as temperature, entropy, and pressure, which are characteristic of whole material bodies and radiation. In addition, thermodynamics explains the relation between these macroscopic variables and the laws that govern them. Thermodynamics can explain natural phenomenon applicable across several scientific and engineering fields, such as physics, chemical engineering, materials science, aerospace engineering, and mechanical engineering. It may explain common and complex reactions, such as engine phase transitions, transportation, chemical reactions, and natural occurrences. In fact, thermodynamics emerged from the research studies compiled by Nicolas Leonard Sadi Carnot in 1824, which aimed to increase the efficiency in earlier steam engine dynamics. It wasn't until 1854 that the term “thermodynamics” became officially defined.
Robert Boyle, a natural philosopher, physicist, chemist, inventor, and author, asserted that the volume of gas is inversely proportional to its exerted pressure if the gas remains at a constant temperature and quantity. Scientists refer to Boyle's law by its time-tested formula: P α 1/V or PV = where “P” stands for the pressure, and the “V” stands for the volume of the gas.
Jacques Charles, a French inventor, scientist, and mathematician, asserted that the volume of gas is directly proportional to the temperature of the gas if under constant temperature and quantity. Scientists refer to Charle's law by its time-tested formula: V α T or V/ T = where “V” stands for the volume, and “T” stands for the temperature of the gas. He discovered this law after experimenting with five balloons at the same volume, except with different gases. He raised the temperatures of the balloons to 80 degrees Celsius, or 176 degrees Fahrenheit, and noted that they all increased in volume by the same quantity. In 1802, Gay-Lussac referenced this law in a published paper that cites the exact relationship between the volume and temperature of a gas.
The first law of thermodynamics applies the principle of the conservation of energy to heat and its relation to energy forms. The first law encompasses key concepts, such as internal energy, heat, and system work. It mostly applies to heat engines equipped on railways. Chemists may cite the first law using the following formula: ΔU=Q+W, the same used for the conservation of energy principle; however, the “W” defines the work done on the system, rather than the work done by the system. In physics, the first law applies to adding heat to the volume of gas and then using the expansion of the same quantity of gas to do the work, such as a downward motion of a piston in an internal combustion engine. This differentiates in terms of chemical reactions and its processes, where work is done on the system, rather than work done by it.
The second law of thermodynamics places restrictions on the direction of heat transfer; therefore, enhancing the efficiency of heat engines. The second law imposes greater limitations than the first law of thermodynamics. In terms of heat engines, the second law makes it impossible to extract an amount of heat from a QH hot reservoir for the sole purpose of using it to do all of the work. Therefore, a small amount of heat QC must be moved to a cold reservoir by means of an exhaust system. Chemists refer to this as the “first form” of the second law, also known as the Kelvin-Planck statement of the second law of thermodynamics.
In terms of a refrigerator, the second law states that it is impossible for heat to flow from a colder reservoir to a warmer reservoir without having work accomplish this flow. This same principle applies to heat pumps and air conditioners. Chemists refer to this as the “second form” of the second law of thermodynamics.
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